Explain Data Encryption Standard (DES) in detail.

Subject Computer and Network Security
NU Year Set: 2.(a) Marks: 5 Year: 2017

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key block cipher published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

DES is an implementation of a Feistel Cipher. It uses 16 round Feistel structure. The block size is 64-bit. Though, key length is 64-bit, DES has an effective key length of 56 bits, since 8 of the 64 bits of the key are not used by the encryption algorithm (function as check bits only). General Structure of DES is depicted in the following illustration −

Since DES is based on the Feistel Cipher, all that is required to specify DES is −

Round function

Key schedule

Any additional processing − Initial and final permutation

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