List and briefly define categories of attack methodologies.

Subject Computer and Network Security
NU Year Set: 1.(d) Marks: 5 Year: 2017

Malware 
If you've ever seen an antivirus alert pop up on your screen, or if you've mistakenly clicked a malicious email attachment, then you've had a close call with malware. Attackers love to use malware to gain a foothold in users' computers—and, consequently, the offices they work in—because it can be so effective.
“Malware” refers to various forms of harmful software, such as viruses and ransomware.

Once malware is in your computer, it can wreak all sorts of havoc, from taking control of your machine to monitoring your actions and keystrokes, to silently sending all sorts of confidential data from your computer or network to the attacker's home base.

Attackers will use a variety of methods to get malware into your computer, but at some stage it often requires the user to take an action to install the malware. This can include clicking a link to download a file, or opening an attachment that may look harmless (like a Word document or PDF attachment), but actually has a malware installer hidden within. 

Phishing 
Of course, chances are you wouldn't just open a random attachment or click on a link in any email that comes your way—there has to be a compelling reason for you to take action. Attackers know this, too. When an attacker wants you to install malware or divulge sensitive information, they often turn to phishing tactics, or pretending to be someone or something else to get you to take an action you normally wouldn’t. Since they rely on human curiosity and impulses, phishing attacks can be difficult to stop. 

SQL Injection Attack 
SQL (pronounced “sequel”) stands for structured query language; it’s a programming language used to communicate with databases. Many of the servers that store critical data for websites and services use SQL to manage the data in their databases. A SQL injection attack specifically targets this kind of server, using malicious code to get the server to divulge information it normally wouldn’t. This is especially problematic if the server stores private customer information from the website, such as credit card numbers, usernames and passwords (credentials), or other personally identifiable information, which are tempting and lucrative targets for an attacker.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) 
In an SQL injection attack, an attacker goes after a vulnerable website to target its stored data, such as user credentials or sensitive financial data. But if the attacker would rather directly target a website's users, they may opt for a cross-site scripting attack. Similar to an SQL injection attack, this attack also involves injecting malicious code into a website, but in this case the website itself is not being attacked. Instead, the malicious code the attacker has injected only runs in the user's browser when they visit the attacked website, and it goes after the visitor directly, not the website.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) 
Imagine you're sitting in traffic on a one-lane country road, with cars backed up as far as the eye can see. Normally this road never sees more than a car or two, but a county fair and a major sporting event have ended around the same time, and this road is the only way for visitors to leave town. The road can't handle the massive amount of traffic, and as a result it gets so backed up that pretty much no one can leave. 

Session Hijacking and Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 
When you're on the internet, your computer has a lot of small back-and-forth transactions with servers around the world letting them know who you are and requesting specific websites or services. In return, if everything goes as it should, the web servers should respond to your request by giving you the information you're accessing. This process, or session, happens whether you are simply browsing or when you are logging into a website with your username and password.  

Credential Reuse 
Users today have so many logins and passwords to remember that it’s tempting to reuse credentials here or there to make life a little easier. Even though security best practices universally recommend that you have unique passwords for all your applications and websites, many people still reuse their passwords—a fact attackers rely on. 


Login to post your comment.