The analysis model is refined METHOD and formalized to get a design Software model. design During sits design at the modeling, technical we kernel try of to software adapt to the engineering actual implementation and is applied environment. regardless In of design the space, software yet another process new model dimension that is used has been . added Beginning to the once analysis software space to requirements include the have implementation been analyzed environment. and specified, This is the means first of that three we technical want to adopt activities our — analysis design, model code to generation, fit in the and implementation test — that are model required at the to same build time and as verify we refine the software. it. But changes Each activity cannot transforms be avoided information so, we develop in a a new manner model. that ultimately results in validated computer software. Each of the elements of the analysis model provides information that is necessary to create the four design models required for a complete specification of design. The flow of information during software design is illustrated in Figure 3. Software requirements, manifested by the data, functional, and behavioral models, feed the design task. Using one the design methods. The design task produces a data design, an architectural design, an interface design, and a component design . The data design transforms the information domain model created during analysis into the data structures that will be required to implement the software. The data objects and relationships defined in the entity relationship diagram and the detailed data content depicted in the data dictionary provide the basis for the data design activity . Part of data design may occur in conjunction III. METHOD Software design sits at the technical kernel of software engineering and is applied regardless of the software process model that is used . Beginning once software requirements have been analyzed and specified, software design is the first of three technical activities — design, code generation, and test — that are required to build and verify the software. Each activity transforms information in a manner that ultimately results in validated computer software. Each of the elements of the analysis model provides information that is necessary to create the four design models required for a complete specification of design. The flow of information during software design is illustrated Software requirements, manifested by the data, functional, and behavioral models, feed the design task. Using one the design methods. The design task produces a data design, an architectural design, an interface design, and a component design . The data design transforms the information domain model created during analysis into the data structures that will be required to implement the software. The data objects and relationships defined in the entity relationship diagram and the detailed data content depicted in the data dictionary provide the basis for the data design activity . Part of data design may occur in conjunction with the design of software architecture. More detailed data design occurs as each software component is designed. The architectural design defines the relationship between major structural elements of the software, the ―design patterns‖ that can be used to achieve the requirements that have been defined for the system, and the constraints that affect the way in which architectural design patterns can be applied. The architectural design representation — the framework of a computer-based system — can be derived from the system specification, the analysis model, and the interaction of subsystems defined within the analysis model. The interface design describes how the software communicates within itself, with systems that interoperate with it, and with humans who use it. An interface implies a flow of information (e.g., data and/or control) and a specific type of behavior. Therefore, data and control flow diagrams provide much of the information required for interface design. The importance of software design can be stated with a single word. Design is the place where quality is fostered in software engineering. Design provides us with representations of software that can be assessed for quality. Design is the only way that we can accurately translate a customer's requirements into a quality software product or system. Software design serves as the foundation for all the software engineering and software support steps that follow. Without design, we risk building an unstable system — one that will fail when small changes are made; one that may be difficult to test; one whose quality cannot be assessed until late in the software process, when time is short and many dollars have already been spent. Explaining the idea/concept of something usually with graphical diagrams with the intention to build from the explanation. The design is a representation of a product or a system with sufficient detail for implementation. From our understanding of the problem, we start building the software. Translate the analysis model into the design model. Map the information from the analysis model to the design representations - data design, architectural design, interface design, procedural design. A good designer should consider alternative approaches, judging each based on the requirements of the problem, the resources available to do the job . Because a single element of the design model often traces to multiple requirements, it is necessary to have a means for tracking how requirements have been satisfied by the design model. That is, the structure of the software design should (whenever possible) mimic the structure of the problem domain. A design is uniform if it appears that one person developed the entire thing. Rules of style and format should be defined for a design team before design work begins. A design is integrated if care is taken in defining interfaces between design components. Even when detailed procedural designs are created for program components, the level of abstraction of the design model is higher than source code. The only design decisions made at the coding level address the small implementation details that enable the procedural design to be coded. A variety of design concepts and design measures are available to assist the designer in assessing quality. There is sometimes a tendency to focus on minutiae when the design is reviewed, missing the forest for the trees. A design team should ensure that major conceptual elements of the design (omissions, ambiguity, and inconsistency) have been addressed before worrying about the syntax of the design model. In the construction process, we construct the system using both the analysis model and requirements model. We design and implement the system. Firstly, a design model is made where each object will be fully specified. This model will then form an input data for the rest process. The transition from the analysis model to the design model should be made when the Consequences of the implementation environment start to show. then it is fine to be quite formal in the analysis model. But if these circumstances will strongly affect the system structure, then the transition should be made quite early. The goal is not to redo any work in a later phase that has done in an earlier phase. We try to keep an ideal analysis model of a system during the entire system life cycle. A design model is a Specialization of the analysis model for a specific implementation environment. Such changes are then easily incorporated because it is the same analysis model that will form should not affect the analysis model as we do not want changes due to design decisions to be illustrated in the analysis model
If a change of the design model comes from a logical change in the system, then such changes should also be made in the analysis model. We use a concept of block now to describe the intention of how the code should be produced. The blocks are the design objects. One block normally tries to implement should not affect the analysis model as we do not want changes due to design IV. decisions CONCLUSION to be illustrated in the analysis Design. Technical kernel of software engineering. During design, progressive refinements of data structure, architecture, interfaces, and procedural detail of software components are developed, reviewed, and documented. CONCLUSION Design is the technical kernel of software engineering. During design, progressive refinements of data structure, architecture, interfaces, and procedural detail of software components are developed, reviewed, and documented. Design results in representations of software that can be assessed for quality. A number of fundamental software design principles and concepts have been proposed over the past four decades. Design principles guide the software engineer as the design process proceeds. Design concepts provide basic criteria for design quality. Design representations are tied to the others, and all can be traced back to software requirements. It is interesting to note that some programmers continue to design implicitly, conducting component-level design as they code. This is akin to taking the design pyramid and standing it on its point — an extremely unstable design results. The smallest change may cause the pyramid (and the program) to topple. Each method enables the designer to create a stable design that conforms to fundamental concepts that lead to high-quality software. We try to solve the problem by rushing through the design process so that enough time will be left at the end of the project to uncover errors that were made because we rushed through the design process.