Describe the printf() and scanf() functions with necessary examples.

Subject Programming Language
NU Year Set: 1.(c) Marks: 3 Year: 2013

printf() and scanf() functions are inbuilt library functions in C programming language which are available in C library by default. These functions are declared and related macros are defined in “stdio.h” which is a header file in C language. We have to include “stdio.h” file as shown in below C program to make use of these printf() and scanf() library functions in C language.


·         In C programming language, printf() function is used to print the “character, string, float, integer, octal and hexadecimal values” onto the output screen.

·         We use printf() function with %d format specifier to display the value of an integer variable.

·         Similarly %c is used to display character, %f for float variable, %s for string variable, %lf for double and %x for hexadecimal variable.

·         To generate a newline,we use “\n” in C printf() statement.


#include <stdio.h>

int main()


   char ch = 'A';

   char str[20] = "";

   float flt = 10.234;

   int no = 150;

   double dbl = 20.123456;

   printf("Character is %c \n", ch);

   printf("String is %s \n" , str);

   printf("Float value is %f \n", flt);

   printf("Integer value is %d\n" , no);

   printf("Double value is %lf \n", dbl);

   printf("Octal value is %o \n", no);

   printf("Hexadecimal value is %x \n", no);

   return 0;



·         In C programming language, scanf() function is used to read character, string, numeric data from keyboard

·         Consider below example program where user enters a character. This value is assigned to the variable “ch” and then displayed.

·         Then, user enters a string and this value is assigned to the variable “str” and then displayed.


#include <stdio.h>

int main()


   char ch;

   char str[100];

   printf("Enter any character \n");

   scanf("%c", &ch);

   printf("Entered character is %c \n", ch);

   printf("Enter any string ( upto 100 character ) \n");

   scanf("%s", &str);

   printf("Entered string is %s \n", str);



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