Write short notes on ROM, RAM, EPROM, OMR

Subject Introduction to Computer System
NU Year Set: 4.(b) Marks: 5 Year: 2010


ROM is "built-in" computer memory containing data that normally can only be read, not written to. ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time you turn it on. Unlike a computer's random access memory (RAM), the data in ROM is not lost when the computer power is turned off. The ROM is sustained by a small long-life battery in your computer.


Random access memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory. RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell.

The opposite of RAM is serial access memory (SAM). SAM stores data as a series of memory cells that can only be accessed sequentially (like a cassette tape). If the data is not in the current location, each memory cell is checked until the needed data is found. SAM works very well for memory buffers, where the data is normally stored in the order in which it will be used (a good example is the texture buffer memory on a video card). RAM data, on the other hand, can be accessed in any order.


EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) is programmable read-only memory (programmable ROM) that can be erased and re-used. Erasure is caused by shining an intense ultraviolet light through a window that is designed into the memory chip. (Although ordinary room lighting does not contain enough ultraviolet light to cause erasure, bright sunlight can cause erasure. For this reason, the window is usually covered with a label when not installed in the computer.)

A different approach to a modifiable ROM is electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM).


Optical mark recognition (OMR) is an electronic method of gathering human-handled data by identifying certain markings on a document. Usually the optical mark recognition process is achieved with the aid of a scanner that checks the transmission or reflection of light through the paper; places having markings will reflect less light than the blank paper, resulting in less contrasting reflectivity.

Optical mark recognition is also known as optical mark reading or, more commonly, by the brand name Scantron.


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