What is Fuzzy logic? Mention some application of Fuzzy logic

Subject Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network
NU Year Set: 2.(b) Marks: 2+4=6 Year: 2010

Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based. 

There were designed two fuzzy expert systems (FES’s) in this area:
(1) It has been developed a rule-based FES that made use of the
laboratory and other data, and simulates an expert-doctor’s
behavior and can help the doctor to determine numerical value of
the prostate cancer risk  
(2) A hierarchical fuzzy expert
system has been designed for determining coronary heart disease’s
diagnosis according to the risk of being patient for next 10 years,
and also possible treatment method. In the first study prostate
specific antigen (PSA), age and prostate volume (PV) were used
as system input parameters whereas prostate cancer risk (PCR) was
used as output parameter. This system gives user a range of the risk
of the cancer disease and facilitates the decision of the doctor if
there is a need for the biopsy. The designed system was tested by
the data are taken from the literature and the clinical data. It was
compared with the diagnoses of the specialists for every clinical
and literature data that is tested by the system.
In the second study structure of FES is mix (hybrid). Fuzzy part of
the system is as follows: Input values are age, cholesterol and
blood pressure. Output value is risk. When the fuzzy part was
constituted, patient’s gender and being smoker were considered and
four different groups have been formed regarding these two
criteria. These groups are; man-no smoking, man-smoking,women-no smoking and women-smoking. Thus, for each group,36 fuzzy rules were generated

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