Write the short notes on any four :-

(i) S/MIME;

(ii) Email Security;

(iii) ESP;

(iv) steganography;

(v) Elliptic curve cryptography;

(vi) Digital Immune System.

Subject Computer and Network Security
NU Year Set: 6.(a) Marks: 5x4=20 Year: 2017

Email Security

A Definition of Email SecurityEmail security describes various techniques for keeping sensitive information in email communication and accounts secure against unauthorized access, loss, or compromise.

Digital Immune System

The Digital Immune System is a network service created by IBM Corp.'s research and development arm. The service analyzes any virus that attacks a computer on the network and produces and distributes a fix in minutes.


Whereas cryptography is the practice of protecting the contents of a message alone, steganography is concerned with concealing the fact that a secret message is being sent as well as concealing the contents of the message. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files.

Elliptic curve cryptography

Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. ECC requires

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