Feedback :** The observation of receiver's response is called feedback. Actually it is the amount of response of the receiver that reaches to the sender. According to Bartol and Martin "Feedback is the receiver's basic response to the interpreted message". From the above discussion we can say that; feedback is a system where the reaction of the receiver reaches to the sender after he has interpreted the message.
Communication process is the system by which a message goes to the sender from receiver in an organized way. According to Mr. Kreither "Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable links. This chain includes sender, message, encoding, receiver, decoding and feedback" From the above discussion we can say that, communication process as the method by which sender and receiver exchange necessary information.Communication Process :
model means a simple description of a system for explaining how something works. And communication model means the graphical presentation of the elements of communication process. According to W.R Tracey "Communication model is representation of a process and not any separate system rather a simple way to represent the various objects oriented elements". From the above discussion we can say that, it is the sequential stage or the elements of communication process.Communication Model :
Types of communication model :There is no single communication model that contains all the elements of a specific communications situation. Various types of communication models are discussed below : 1. Aristotle's Persuasion Model : The communication model produced by Greek philosopher Aristotle is popularly known as the "Aristotle's Persuasion Model". According to him "When any political leader or a teacher delivers his speech in gathering and in a class-room respectively, their style of speech is included in persuasion model." The model is shown below : Sender/Speaker Message Receiver/Audience In the model; three elements of communication process have been detected. There is no scope of responding by the receiver and his role is neglected here. this model is considered as a one side communication model.
Newcomb's Inter-personal Communication Model :** This is one of the simplest models of communication. In this model, there a re three parties to effect the communication process. According to Newcomb "There might be a third party between the sender and the receiver and that third party can manipulate the communication process. the model is given below." X Y Z In the figure, there are three parties X, Y and Z if any two parties want to communicate with each other, they must depend on the third party. This communication models does not present all the elements of communication process.
This model shows that the communication process begins from the brain of the sender and sends it to receiver. Then the message goes to the receiver through certain media and his brain receives it. After receiving the message, the receiver sends reaction to the sender. This model also includes a transmitter that converts the message into real meaning. the whole process is interrupted by noise. The model is shown below : The model is one of the most comprehensive models of communication as it includes feedback and it is very close to the modern model of communication.Shanon and Weaver information model :
Over the period of time communication process has been developed a lot. The modern communication model has evolved from Shanon and Weaver's information theory model. This model is given below : The modern communication model includes nine elements of communication process. The figure shows the sender and receiver are the major parties in the communication process. Besides these, message, media, encoding, decoding response and feedback are the major functions; and noise is the last creates interruption at any stage of communication process.The modern model of communication :
When a message is exchanged in a written form, it is called written communication. According to Bovee and Others "Written communication is the expression of ideas through word that are meant to be read". From the above discussion we can say that, written communication takes different forms like letters, memos, notices etc. Normally, important, complex and secret messages are communicated in writing modes.Written Communication :
Oral communication i the process of exchanging message between or among parties orally. here the sender and receiver exchange message directly. Most of the time, we use oral communication. According to Griffin "Oral communication takes place in face-to-face conversation, group discussion, telephone calls and others circumstances in which spoken work is used to express meaning". From the above discussion we can say that; oral communication takes place in oral form and sender and receiver communicate with each other directly.Oral Communication :
Downward Communication :When communication flows from superior to subordinate, it called downward communication. The common purpose of downward communication is to give instruction and information to the subordinates. According to Newstrom and K.Davis "Downward communication is an organization is the flo of information from higher to lower levels of authority". The flow of downward communication can be shown as below : Manager Supervisor Worker
Downward Communication Effective :Downward communication can be hampered by several factors but it can be made effective if some guidelines are followed. The guidelines are given below : 1. Introducing participative management system 2. Good labor management relation 3. Avoiding autocratic relation 4. Encouraging employee for participation. 5. Sending complete and clear message 6. Avoiding suspecting and neglecting attribute of management. The above mentioned guidelines must be followed in order to make downward communication effective.
Upward Communication :When message goes from subordinates to superiors, then it is called upward communicate. The purpose of upward communication is usually to give information and reports to managers or superiors. According to L.C.Bovee and Others "Upward communication means the floe of information from the subordinates to the superior managers". The flow of upward communication is given below : Manager Supervisor Worker So, when information moves upward from downward, then it is called upward communication.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Upward Communication :A) Advantages of Upward Communication : 1. Providing feedback 2. Effective decision making 3. Constructive suggestions 4. Motivating 5. Sharing emotion B) Disadvantages of upward communication : 1. Lack of initiative 2. Fear of adverse effect 3. Risk distortion 4. By-passing 5. Flattery
Essential Element of Upward Communication/ Or to make upward communication effective :When information moves upward from downward, then it is called upward communication. The way of making upward communication more effective are discussed below : 1. Changing autocratic attitude. 2. Introducing perfect participative management system. 3. Changing perception of both parties. 4. Confidence on subordinates 5. Reward for suggestion 6. Open door policy 7. Democratic environment 8. Shortening the communication lines.
Normally, transmission of message to many persons at a time is called mass communication. But complete sense, mass communication can be defined as the process through which a message is circulated extensively among the people who are far away from the sender. According to Ault and Emery "mass communication is a process of sending of message, thought and attitude through some media to a large number of heterogeneous audiences". From the above definition we can say that, mass communication is the process of sending message to a large number of people at a time by using some media.Mass Communication :