Difference between Data and Information :
Data Information 1.Data is raw material and unorganized facts that need to be processed . 1.When data are processessed, organized, structured or presented in a given context sos as to make them useful, they are called information . 2.Data is used as input. 2.Information is used as output. 3.Data is not organized, it remains in scattered form . 3.Information is organized.When some appropriate structure has been applied to the, data then it becomes information . 4.Data in themselves are fairly useless. 4.When these data are interpreted and processed to determine its true meaning, they become useful and can be called information . 5.Data has no meaning. 5.Information is meaningful to the person reading it. 6.Data is the unit idea. 6.Information is the integrated concept. 7.Data is often obtained as a result of recordings or observations. 7.Information obtained is a result of analysis, investigation and communications. 8.Example : Name, 30,12,B,Karim,Roll,Marks,38,A,15,Sec,Rahim. 8..
Characteristics of Computer :
Speed :A computer is a very fast device.It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that a human being can do in a entire year.
Automatic Operation :Computers are automatic in operation.Once data and programs are fed to a computer, the operation of computer is automatic as the sequence of steps defined by the program.A machine is said to be automatic, if it work by itself without the human intervention.
Accuracy :Computers ensure high degree of accuracy
Diligence :Unlike human being a computer free from monotony tiredness and lack of concatenation.It can continuously work for hours, without creating any errors.
Versatility :Computers are externally vesicle and capable of performing almost any task.It solve problem in different fields like complex scientific problems, business problems, medical problems, etc.
Storage :Computer has memory to store information and program.Mainly, computer memory in categorized as two types-primary memory and secondary memory.The memory capacity is considered as-
1bytes = 8bit.
1KB = 1024bytes
1MB = 1024KB
1GB = 1024MB
1TB = 1024GB
No Intelligence :A computer has no intelligence of its own.It can't take its own decision.It has to be told what to do and in what sequence
No Feelings :Computer has no feelings, taste, knowledge and experience on which it can take judgement>Computer judgement is based on the instruction given to them in the form of programs.
Describe of First Generation Computer :
Generation Period : 1940-1956
Hardware Features : i.Vacuum tube
Software Features : i.Machine Language
ii.Mostly Scientific Applications
Others Features : i.Bulky in size
iii.Limited commercial use
iv.Difficult to use
Examples : IBM 701, ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, etc
Describe of Second Generation Computer :
Generation Period : 1956-1964
Hardware Features : i.Transitors
ii.Magnetic core for primary memory
iii.Magnetic disk for seconday stage
Software Features : i.Assembly Language
ii.Batch operating system
iii.High level programming language such as cobol
iv.Scientific and commercial application
Others Features : i.Smaller in size
ii.Faster and reliable
iii.Commercial used was still difficult
iv.Difficult to use
Examples : IBM 7030, UNIVAC LARC, HONEYWALL 400, UNIVAC I, etc
Describe of Third Generation Computer :
Generation Period : 1964-1975
Hardware Features : i.IC with SSI and MSI technologies
iii.Uses of monitor
Software Features : i.Time sharing operating system
ii.Standardization of high level programming langauge
Others Features : i.Faster, smaller, more reliable
ii.Cheaper to produce commercially
iii.Easier to upgrade
iv.Scientific, commercial and interactive online application
Examples : IBM 360/370, PDP-8, PDP-11, etc
Describe of Fourth Generation Computer :
Generation Period : 1940-1956
Hardware Features : i.IC and VLSI technology
iv.Spread of high speed computer network
Software Features : i.GUI operating system as WINDOWS
ii.UNIX operating system
iii.Network based applications
Others Features : i.Smaller, reliable and easy to use
ii.More powerful mainframe computer
iii.Totally general purpose machine
iv.Easier to produce commercially
Examples : IBM PC and its clones, Apple II, CRAY-1, CRAY-2, etc
Describe of Fifth Generation Computer :
Generation Period : 1990-Present and beyond
Hardware Features : i.IC with ULSI technologies
ii.Larger capacity main memory, hard disk and optical disks
Software Features : i.Multimedia application
Others Features : i.Portable computer
ii.More powerful, easier, reliable
iii.Totally general purpose machine
Characteristics of First Generation Computer :
1. These computers were based on vacuum tube technology.
2.These were the fastest computing devices of their times
3.THese computers were very large and required a lot of space for installation
4.Since thousands of vacuum tubes were used, they generated a large amount of heat.Therefore, air conditioning was essential.
5.These were non-portable and very slow equipments
6.They lacked in versatility and speed
7.They were very expensive to operate and used a large amount of electricity
8.These machines were unreliable and prone to frequent hardware failures.Hence, constant maintenance was required.
9.Since machine language was used, these computers were difficult to program and use.
10.Each individual component had to be assembled manually.Hence, commercial appeal of these computers was poor.
Characteristics of Second Generation Computer :
1.These machines were based on transistor technology
2.These were smaller when command to the first-generation computers
3.The computational time of these computers was reduced to microseconds from miliseconds
4.THese were more reliable and less prone to hardware failure
5.These were generated less amount of heat
6.Assembly langauge was used to program computers
7.Manual assemnly of individual components into a functioning unit was still required.
Characteristics of Third Generation Computer :
1.These computers were based on integrated circuit(IC) technology
2.These were able to reduce computational time from microseconds to nanoseconds
3.These were easily portable and more reliable than the second-generation computers.
4.These devices consumed less power and generated less heat
5.Since hardware rarely failed, the maintenance cost was quite low.
6.Extensive use of high-level language become possible.
7.Manual assembling of individual components was not required; therefore it reduce the large requirement of labor and cost.However, highly sophisticated technologies were required for the manufacturing of IC chips.
8.Commercial production became easier and cheaper.
The advantage of Mouse :
i.It can be faster to select an option using a mouse rather than a keyboard
ii.Mice enable rapid navigation through applications and the internet
iii.Mice are small and so take up little area
The disadvantages of Mouse :
i.People with restricted hand/wrist movement can find it hard to operate a mouse
ii.Mice are easily damaged and the older type of mouse also quickly becomes clogged up with dirt
iii.They are difficult to use if there is no flat surface readily available
The uses of Mouse :
i.Mice can be used for opening, closing and minimizing software
ii.They can be used for grouping, moving and deleting files
iii.They are very useful when editing images, for example controlling the size and position of drawing pasted into a document
iv.Mice are used for controlling the position of a pointer on the screen to allow selection from a menu or selecting an icon and for scrolling up and down left to right
The advantage of Tracker Ball :
i.Tracker balls do not need the same fine control as a mouse
ii.People with limited hand/wrist movement find it easier to use than a mouse
iii.The pointer can be positioned more accurately on the screen than with a mouseThe disadvantages of Tracker Ball :
i.Tracker balls are not supplied with the computer as a standard, so they are more expensiveThe uses of Tracker Ball :
i.They have the same pointing/cursor control capability as a mouse
ii.They are used in applications where the user has a disability
iii.THey are used in a control room environment, where it i faster than a mouse to navigate through process screens
The advantage of Joystick :
i.It is easier to navigate round a screen using a joystick rather than a keyboard
ii.Control is in three dimensions
The disadvantages of Joystick :
i.It is more difficult to control the on-screen pointer with a joystick than with other device, such as a mouseThe uses of Joystick :
i.Video/computer games are often controlled by joysticks
ii.They are used in simulators.
The advantage of Keyboard:
i.Keyboards enable fast entry of new text into a document
ii.They are a well-tried technology and a well-known method of entry
iii.Mot people find them easy to use
iv.It i easy to do verification checks as data is entered, as it appears on the screen simultaneously
The disadvantages of Keyboard :
i.Users with limited arm/wrist use can find keyboards hard to use
ii.Entering data using a keyboard is slow when compared to direct data entry
iii.Keyboards are fairly large devices that use up valuable desk space.
The uses of Keyboard:
i.Keyboards are used to input data into applications software
ii.They are also used for typing commands to the computer
Characteristics of Fourth Generation Computer :
1.Fourth-generation computers are microprocessor-based systems
2.These computers are very small in size
3.These are the cheapest among all the other generation computers
4.These are portable and quite reliable
5.These machines generate negligible amount of heat
6.Hardware failure is negligible, so minimum maintenance is required.
7.The production cost is very low.In addition, requirement of labor and cost involved at assembly stage is also minimal
8.GUI and pointing devices enable the users to learn to use the computer quickly
9.Interconnection of computers leads to better communication and resource sharing.